Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Fill Form 8815 Amounts

Instructions and Help about Fill Form 8815 Amounts

In this video we're going to talk about the SPD F sub levels we need to know is that S has a spherical shape just like a sphere P has a dumbbell shape it can be drawn both ways D is like a cloverleaf and F has some unusual shape which varies and I really don't want to go over that but some things you need to know the number of energy levels is equal to the number of sub levels so when n is 1 you only have 1 sub level S when n is 2 you have two sub levels s and P when n is 3 you have 3 sub levels 3s 3p 3d when n is 4 there are 4 sub levels 4s 4p 4d and 4f the S sub level can hold up to two electrons and you need to know that every orbital can hold up to two electrons so s has one orbital now in a periodic table the S block is really the first two columns Group one and group two so that's the S block P can hold up to 6 electrons if you notice the P block in the periodic table it's like group 13 to group 18 you can see those six elements there P can hold up to six electrons and because every orbital can hold up to two electrons P has three orbitals D can hold up to ten electrons the elements in the D block starting with like um you have like zinc copper and nickel those are in the 3d sublevel and if you look at the periodic table this 10 elements there D can hold up to 10 electrons and so the D sublevel has 5 orbitals F can hold up to 14 electrons and F has 7 orbitals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 so those are some things you want to keep in mind by the way whenever you have the s sublevel L is equal to 0 for the P sub level L is equal to 1 for DL is equal to 2 and for F L is equal to 3 so you need to be familiar with these four quantum numbers n L M L and M s we talked about an already this is the main principle energy level L represents the sub level which is associated with s P D and F ml of rap is it specifies the orbital s has one orbital and it has the value of zero P has three orbitals and it has the value of negative 1 0 & 1 D has 5 orbitals which varies between negative 2 & 2 we're going to talk about that soon M s represents the electron spin inside an orbital you can have an up arrow which stands for plus 1/2 or you can have a down arrow which has an electron spin of negative 1/2 so let's talk about how to identify these quantum numbers let's say if you want to identify the four quantum numbers for the 3p5 electron and it's going to be this number n is three now P will tell you what the value of L is keep in mind for s L is zero for PL is one for DL is two for F Ellis tree now P has three orbitals as we talked about and because L is one ml is going to vary between negative 1 0 and 1 now we went up we're focused on the fifth electron so here's the first electron second third fourth fifth the fifth electron lands in this orbital where ml is zero so therefore ml 0 M s is negative 1/2 because the fifth arrow points down you always start by drawing the arrows up and then down so those are the four quantum numbers that corresponds to the 3p 5 electron let's try two more examples let's try 4 d 4 n is 4 and 4 D Alex 2 because 4 SL is 0 4 PL is 1 & 4 FL is 3 now the D sublevel has 5 orbitals and so ml can vary between negative 2 negative 1 0 1 & 2 because L is 2 so is the first arrow second third fourth we're interested in the fourth arrow and it landed on the orbital that has the value of 1 and because this is an up arrow the spin is positive 1/2 alright for the sake of practice let's try one more example let's focus on the 5 f 13 electron so n is 5 L is 0 4 SL is 1 4 pls to 4d 4f LS 3 & 4 the F sub level there are 7 orbitals and M L can vary between negative 3 & 3 because Alice tree so we're interested in the 13th electron one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen there it is and it landed in this orbital so I'm else too and it's a down arrow so the electron spin is negative 1/2 so that's how you can find the four quantum numbers given the electron now Pauli's exclusion principle states that no two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers as you can see these quantum numbers are unique for each electron this one electron has it's a unique set of four quantum numbers so if you're given these four quantum numbers you can identify what electron we're talking about let's try that so let's say for example if n is 3 L is to MS 1 + ms is negative 1/2 what electron are we talking about what which electron is identified by these four unique quantum numbers so we know we're in the third energy level when L is 0 it's asked when L is 1 it's P when L is 2 it's D so when it's 3 D sublevel D has 5