Video instructions and help with filling out and completing When Form 8815 Vary

Instructions and Help about When Form 8815 Vary

William Bradford Shockley jr. February 13th 1910 to August 12th 1989 was an American physicist and inventor Shockley was the manager of a research group at Bell Labs that included John Bardeen and Walter Brattain the three scientists were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect Shockley's attempts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s led to California's Silicon Valley becoming a hotbed of electronics innovation in his later life Shockley was a professor of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University and became a proponent of eugenics topic early life and education Shockley was born in London to American parents and raised in his family's hometown of Palo Alto California from the age of three his father William Hillman Shockley was a mining engineer who speculated in mines for a living and spoke eight languages his mother Mary Mae Bradford grew up in the American West graduated from Stanford University and became the first female US deputy mining surveyor Shockley earned his Bachelor of Science degree from Caltech in 1932 and a PhD from MIT in 1936 the title of his doctoral thesis was electronic bands in sodium chloride a topic suggested by his thesis adviser John C Slater after receiving his doctorate chuckle II joined a research group headed by Clinton Davisson at Bell Labs in New Jersey the next few years were productive for Shockley he published a number of fundamental papers on solid-state physics and physical review in 1938 he got his first patent electron discharge device on electron multipliers topic courier you when world war ii broke out shockley became involved in radar research at Bell Labs in Manhattan New York City in May 1942 he took leave from Bell Labs to become a research director at Columbia University's and - submarine warfare Operations Group this involved devising methods for countering the tactics of submarines with improved convoying techniques optimizing depth charge patterns and so on this project required frequent trips to the Pentagon in Washington where Shockley met many high-ranking officers and government officials in 1944 he organized a training program for b-29 bomber pilots to use new radar bomb sites in late 1944 he took a three-month tour to bases around the world to assess the results for this project Secretary of War Robert Patterson awarded Shockley the medal for merit on October 17 1946 in July 1945 the War Department asked Shockley to prepare a report on the question of probable casualties from an invasion of the Japanese mainland Shockley concluded if the study shows that the behavior of nations in all historical case is comparable to Japan's has in fact been invariably consistent with the behavior of the troops in battle then it means that the Japanese dead and ineffective --zz at the time of the defeat will exceed the corresponding number for the Germans in other words we shall probably have to kill at least five to ten million Japanese this might cost us between 1.7 and 4 million casualties including 400,000 to 800,000 killed this report influenced the decision of the United States to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki which precipitated the unconditional surrender of Japan Shockley was the first physicist to propose a lognormal distribution to model the creation process for scientific research papers topic development of the transistor shortly after the war ended in 1945 Bell Labs formed a solid-state physics group led by Shockley and chemist Stanley Morgan which included John Bardeen Walter Brattain physicist Gerald Pearson chemist Robert Gibney electronics expert Hilbert Moore and several technicians their assignment was to seek a solid-state alternative to fragile glass vacuum tube amplifiers its first attempts were based on Shockley's ideas about using an external electrical field on a semiconductor to affect its conductivity these experiments failed every time in all sorts of configurations and materials the group was at a standstill until Bardeen suggested a theory that invoked surface States that prevented the field from penetrating the semiconductor the group changed its focus to study these surface States and they met almost daily to discuss the work the rapport of the group was excellent and ideas were freely exchanged by the winter of 1946 they had enough results that Bardeen submitted a paper on the surface states to physical review brit ain started experiments to study the surface States through observations made while shining a bright light on the semiconductor surface this led to several more papers one of them co-authored with Shockley which estimated the density of the surface States to be more than enough to account for their failed experiments the pace of the work picked up significantly when they started to surround point contacts between the semiconductor and the conducting wires with electrolytes Moore built a circuit that allowed them to vary the frequency of the input signal easily finally they began to get some evidence of power amplification when Pearson acting on a suggestion by Shockley put a voltage on a droplet of glycol borate a viscous chemical that did not evaporate commonly used in electrolytic capacitors and obtained by puncturing an example capacitor with a nail using a hammer placed across a PN Junction bell labs attorneys soon discovered Shockley's field effect principle had been anticipated and devices based on it patented in 1930 by Julius Lilienfeld who filed his mes fe t like patent in Canada on October 22nd 1925 although the patent appeared breakable it could not work the patent attorneys based one of its four patent applications on on the Bardeen retain point-contact design three others submitted first covered the electrolyte based transistors with Bardeen gibney and retain as the inventors Shockley's name was not on any of these patent applications this angered Shockley who thought his name should also be on the patents because the work was based on his field effect idea he even made efforts to have the