Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Where Form 8815 Vary

Instructions and Help about Where Form 8815 Vary

American exceptionalism as an ideology holding the United States as unique among nations in positive or negative connotations with respect to its ideas of democracy and personal freedom that the concept has no formal definition there are some themes common to various conceptions of the idea one is the history of the United States as different from other nations in this view American exceptionalism stems from the American Revolution becoming what political scientist Seymour Martin Lipset called the first new nation in developing the American ideology of Americanism based on liberty egalitarianism individualism republicanism democracy and lays a fair economics this ideology itself is often referred to as American exceptionalism another theme is the idea that the u.s. has a unique mission to transform the world Abraham Lincoln stated in the Gettysburg Address 1863 Americans have a duty to ensure government of the people by the people for the people shall not perish from the earth another theme is the sense the United States history and mission give it a superiority over other nations the theory of the exceptionalism of the US has developed over time and can be traced to many sources French political scientist and historian Alexis de Tocqueville was the first writer to describe the country as exceptional in 1831 and 1840 the actual phrase American exceptionalism was originally coined by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin as a critique of a revisionist faction of American communists who argued that the American political climate was unique making it an exception to certain elements of Marxist theory US President Ronald Reagan is often credited with having crystallized this ideology in recent decades political scientist Alden eisenach argues in the 21st century American exceptionalism has come under attack from the postmodern left as a reactionary myth the absence of a shared purpose is ratified in the larger sphere of liberal progressive public policy beginning with the assumption of American exceptionalism as a reactionary myth topic terminology the exact term American exceptionalism was occasionally used in the 19th century in his the Yale book of quotations Fred Shapiro notes exceptionalism was used to refer to the United States and its self-image by the Times of London on August 20th 1861 it's common use dates from communist usage in the late 1920s Soviet leader Joseph Stalin chastised members of the jail of stone led faction of the American Communist Party for its claim the US was independent of the Marxist laws of history thanks to its natural resources industrial capacity and absence of rigid class distinctions Stalin may have been told of the usage American exceptionalism by Brodeur and Zack in Daily Worker NY On January 29 1929 before love stones visit to Moscow American communists started using the English term American exceptionalism in factional fights it then moved into general use among intellectuals in 1989 Scottish political scientist Richard rose noted most American Historians endorse exceptionalism he suggests these historians reason as follows America marches to a different drummer its uniqueness as explained by any or all of a variety of reasons history size geography political institutions and culture explanations of the growth of government in Europe are not expected to fit American experience and vice versa however post nationalist scholars have rejected American exceptionalism arguing the u.s. did not break from European history and accordingly the US has retained class-based and race-based differences as well as imperialism and willingness to wage war in recent years scholars from numerous disciplines as well as politicians and commentators in the traditional media have debated the meaning and usefulness of the concept Roberts and dicker see asked why has the myth of American exceptionalism characterized by a belief in America's highly distinctive features or unusual trajectory based on the abundance of its natural resources its revolutionary origins and its Protestant religious culture that anticipated God's blessing of the nation held such tremendous staying power from its influence in popular culture to its critical role in foreign policy some historians support the concept of American exceptionalism but avoid the terminology thereby avoid entangling themselves in rhetorical debates Bernard Bailyn a leading colonial specialist at Harvard is a believer in the distinctiveness of American civilization although he rarely if ever uses the phrase American exceptionalism he insists upon the distinctive characteristics of British North American life he has argued the process of social and cultural transmission result in peculiarly American patterns of education in the broadest sense of the word and he believes in the unique character of the American Revolution topic origin of the term although the concept of American exceptionalism dates to the founding ideas the term was first used in the 1920s some claim the phrase American exceptionalism originated with the American Communist Party in an english translation of a condemnation made in 1929 by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin criticizing communist supporters of jail of stone for the heretical belief the u.s. was independent of the Marxist laws of history thanks to its natural resources industrial capacity and absence of rigid class distinctions this origin has been challenged however because the expression American exceptionalism was already used by Broder and Zack in the Daily Worker and why on January 29 1929 before love stones visit to Moscow also Fred Shapiro editor of the Yale book of quotations has noted exceptionalism was used to refer to the United States and its self-image during the Civil War by the New York Times on August 20th 1861 early examples of the terms usage to include a declaration made at the 1930 American communists convention proclaiming the storm of the economic crisis in the United States blew down the house of cards of American exceptionalism the phrase fell to obscurity after the 1930s and in the 1980's American newspapers popularized it to describe America's cultural and political uniqueness the phrase became an issue of contention between presidential candidates Barack Obama and John McCain in the 2008 presidential campaign with Republicans attacking Obama for not believing in the