### Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Which Form 8815 Amounts

**Instructions and Help about Which Form 8815 Amounts**

Music they say the pen is mightier than the sword and authorities have often agreed from outlawed religious tracts and revolutionary manifestos to censored and burned books we know the potential power of words to overturn the social order but as strange as it may seem some numbers have also been considered dangerous enough to ban our distant ancestors long counted objects using simple tally marks but as they developed agriculture and begin living together in larger groups this was no longer enough as numbers grew more complex people began not just using them but thinking about what they are and how they work and by 600 BCE in ancient Greece the study of numbers was well developed the mathematician Pythagoras and his school of followers found numerical patterns in shapes music and the Stars for them mathematics held the deepest secrets of the universe but one Pythagorean named hipa sious discovered something disturbing some quantities like the diagonal of a square with sides of length 1 couldn't be expressed by any combination of whole numbers or fractions no matter how small these numbers which we call irrational numbers were perceived as a threat to the pythagoreans notion of a perfect universe they imagined a reality that could be described with rational numerical patterns historians write the HIPAA sis was exiled for publicizing his findings while legends claim he was drowned as punishment from the gods while irrational numbers upset philosophers later mathematical inventions would draw attention from political and religious authorities as well in the Middle Ages while Europe was still using Roman numerals other cultures had developed positional systems that included a symbol for zero when Arab travelers brought the system to the bustling maritime cities of Italy its advantages for merchants and bankers was clear but the authorities were more wary hindu-arabic numerals were considered easier to forge or alter especially since they were less familiar to customers than to merchants and the concept of zero opened the door to negative numbers and the recording of debt at a time when money lending was regarded with suspicion in the 13th century Florence banned the use of hindu-arabic numerals for record-keeping and though they soon proved too useful to ignore controversies over 0 and negative numbers continued for a long time negative numbers were dismissed as absurd well into the 19th century and prominent mathematicians like Gerolamo Cardano avoided using 0 even though it would have made it much easier to find solutions to cubic and the quartic equations even today it's illegal to use some numbers for different reasons some are banned because of what they represent for example governments have prohibited the display of numbers that have symbolic meaning such as the date of a revolution or connections to oppositional political figures or parties other numbers are potentially illegal because of the information they carry just about any information whether text image video or executable programs can be translated into a string of numbers but this means that protected information whether copyrights proprietary materials or state secrets can also be represented as numbers so possessing or publishing these numbers may be treated as a criminal offense this idea gathered attention in 2001 when code that could be used to decrypt DVDs was widely shared and distributed in the form of a large prime number the idea of illegal numbers may sound absurd but like words written numbers are a way of expressing concepts and information and in a world where calculations and algorithms shape more and more of our lives the mathematicians pencil grows stronger by the day did you enjoy this lesson if so please consider supporting our nonprofit mission by visiting patreon.com slash ted Edie Music