Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Why Form 8815 Dependent

Instructions and Help about Why Form 8815 Dependent

North Cascades National Park is an American National Park in the state of Washington at more than 500,000 acres 200,000 hectares North Cascades National Park is the largest of the three National Park Service units that comprise the North Cascades National Park complex North Cascades National Park consists of a northern and southern section bisected by the Skagit River that flows through Ross Lake National Recreation Area Lake Chelan National Recreation Area lies on the southern border of the South unit of the park in addition to the two national recreation areas other protected lands including several national forests and wilderness areas as well as Canadian provincial parks in British Columbia nearly surround the park North Cascades National Park features the rugged mountain peaks of the North Cascades Range the most expansive glacial system in the contiguous United States the headwaters of numerous waterways and vast forests with the highest degree of flora biodiversity of any American National Park the region was first settled by paleo Indian Native Americans by the time European American explorers arrived it was inhabited by Skagit tribes by the early 19th century the region was visited by fur trappers and several British and American companies vied for control over the fur trade after the international boundary between Canada and the United States was set at the 49th parallel in 1846 explorers came to chart potential routes through the mountains for roads and railroads limited mining and logging occurred from the late 19th century to the early 20th century the first significant human impact in the region occurred in the 1920s when several dams were built in the Skagit River Valley to generate hydroelectric power environmentalists then campaigned to preserve the remaining wilderness culminating on October 2nd 1968 with the designation of North Cascades National Park heavy snows and a high risk of avalanches due to the steep terrain especially on the western slopes severely limit visitation in the winter most access to the park is from State Route 20 which follows the Skagit River though even this road is closed for months at a time in the winter most of the plan an animal species native to the park region are still found there though climate change and pollutants from industrialized regions to the west pose risks to the environment the park has one of the earliest and longest lasting research programs dedicated to studying climate change primarily through examining the effects of glacial retreat North Cascades National Park is almost entirely protected as wilderness and so the park has few structures roads or other improvements visitors wishing to drive to a campground must do so in the adjacent national forests or national recreation areas camping inside the park requires hiking in by trail horseback or boat and camping is regulated by a permit system to ensure the wilderness has not over exploited mountaineering is popular in the park and only unobtrusive clean climbing is allowed topic human history you topic paleo-indians and Native Americans human history in North Cascades National Park in the surrounding region begins eight to ten thousand years ago after the end of the last glacial period Paleo Indians slowly advanced from Puget Sound into the interior mountain region as the glacial ice retreated archaeological evidence from other sites hundreds of miles away from the park indicate that hezonia chert a type of rock well-suited to the fabrication of implements was mined from near hasami mountain just east of the park border for the last eight thousand four hundred years tools such as micro blades made from huzzah mean chert are part of the archaeological record throughout the Skagit River Valley west of the park in in regions to the east prehistoric micro blades nine thousand six hundred years old have been discovered at Cascade Pass a mountain pass that connects the western lowlands to the interior regions of the park in the Stikine River Valley the micro blades are part of an archaeological assemblage that includes five distinct cultural periods indicating that people were traveling into the mountains nearly ten thousand years ago as well as the archaeological excavation at Cascade Pass there are another 260 prehistoric sites that have been identified in the park when white explorers first entered the area in the late 18th century perhaps a thousand Native Americans Gadgets lived in the park and surrounding areas residing mainly to the west of the park near Puget Sound the Skagit lived in settlements calling their needs from the waterways and traveling by canoe Skagit formed a loose confederation of tribes that United if threatened by outside tribes such as the haters who lived to the north they erected large houses or lodges that could house multiple families each with their own partitioned area and entrance the lodges were 100 feet 30 meters in length and 20 to 40 feet 6.1 to 12 point 2 meters in width and the roofs were shed Stiles with a single pitch structures built by other Puget Sound tribes usually had gable roofs with more than one pitch the Skagit were generally low Landers who only ventured into the North Cascades during the summer months and structures in the mountains were more modest mostly of temporary buildings erected with poles and covered with branches the Skagit erected totem poles and participated in potlatch ceremonies similar to the Hades but with less complexity and extravagance by 1910 only about 56 Skagit srem aend in the region but their numbers have since rebounded to several hundred inland and residing to the north and east of the Skagit the N Lac Atomics or Thompson Indians after Explorer David Thompson chillon Okanagan and Wenatchee tribes lived partly or year-round in the eastern sections of the North Cascades the Skagit Sand Thompson's often had disputes and rated one another's camps in search of slaves or to exact retribution like the coastal based Skagit inland tribes also constructed long lodges which were occupied by numerous families though